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Siphonosphaera vesuvius Lazarus, 1992

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Definition: Single spherical, rarely elliptical, shell with numerous regularly spaced, fairly uniformly sized and shaped open ended, slightly concave conical tubes. Radial length of tubes generally equal to or slightly greater than diameter of pores at end of tubes. Concave curvature of tubes often merges at base of tubes into convex circular swellings of shell surface. Distance between pore centers typically between 2 and 3 times diameter of pores. Tube length 5%-10% of shell diameter. No spines. Shell surface smooth.

Etymology: Name refers to Mt. Vesuvius, a well-known Italian volcano with a shape similar to the pores of this species.

Occurrence: Early to middle late Miocene, Antarctic. Rare to abundant. May occur primarily either as fragments, or, in well preserved samples, as (nearly) complete shells. Does not range into the earliest Pliocene as indicated by Lazarus (1990).

Comments: Similar to several species described by Haeckel (1887), but differs in size, shape, and spacing of conical tubes, according to Haeckelīs descriptions and plates. Siphonosphaera conifera Haeckel has tubes with length greater than diameter of the shell. S. cyathina Haeckel has distally flared pores. Ethmosphaera polysiphonia Haeckel ad E. conosiphonia Haeckel have closely packed simple conical tubes. E. siphonosphaera Haeckel has a large number of pores set in hexagonal frames. Other collosphaerids with conical tubes, such as S. martensi Brandt (Takahashi, 1981) have, in addition to tubular pores, many pores without tubes.
Lazarus 1992


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