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Cladococcus cervicornis Haeckel, 1862

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Benson, 1966, p. 172-173; pl. 6, fig. 1:

Elaphococcus cervicornis Haeckel

Cladococcus cervicornis Haeckel, 1862, Die Radiolarien, p. 370, P1. 14, figs. 4-6; Dreyer, 1913, Ergeb. der Plankton-Exped. der Humboldt-Stiftung, vol. 3, L.d.e., no. 1, p. 30, P1. 1, figs. 1, 5, 8.
Elaphococcus cervicornis Haeckel, 1887, Challenger Rept. Zool., vol. 18, P. 228.
Elaphococcus gaussi Popof sky, l9l2, Deutsche SŘdpolar-Exped., vol. 13, pp. 100-101, P1. 6, fig. 1.

Single spherical shell with 20-40 long, dichotomously branched, cylindrical, regularly arranged, radial spines arising from its surface. Surface of shell with a few scattered, thin, conical by-spines (6-25 Ám) or thorns arising from the intervening bars. Pores of shell subequal, subcircular, subpolygonal, or subelliptical, with subregular (hexagonal) arrangement, separated by relatively thin, smooth to spinose, intervening bars, without polygonal frames, 8-11 on the half circumference. At least three of four orders of branches of the radial spines were observed.

Measurements; based on 6 specimens from stations 91, 92, and 133: diameter of shell 84-96 Ám, of imaginary sphere tangent to tips of radial spines 155-246 Ám; length of radial spines 43-135 Ám

Remarks. No specimens from the Gulf were observed with as many orders of branching of the radial spines (6) as shown in Haeckel's illustration of Cladococcus cervicornis Haeckel (1862, P1. 14, figs. 4, 6), but the Gulf specimens are probably not fully developed. Popofsky's illustration of E. gaussi Popofsky (1912, P1. 6, fig. 1) differs from the majority of the Gulf specimens in the presence of low, knob-like thorns on the intervening bars. This feature is variable within the species from the Gulf.

Distribution. This species occurs very rarely and at only four stations in the Gulf, namely 91, 93, 106, and 133. Whether or not its presence at these stations is a result of a response to upwelling cannot be determined. Due to its apparently low frequency in waters of the Gulf, any record if its occurrence in the sediments of the Gulf is an accident of sampling.
Haeckel (1887, p. 228) states that this species is present at the surface in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans as well as in the Mediterranean Sea. It is apparently confined to tropical seas because it has not been reported from high latitudes.


Benson 1966


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